The report sets out in Chpt.2 to describe the situation in FS management worldwide and analysing the relationship between causes, problems (or challenges in more positive terminology) and consequences in the current, often dramatic situation of FS management. Chpt. 2 also addresses the fact that FS management is an integral component of urban environmental sanitation and should be viewed with its linkages to all the other components. Further to this, economic aspects are touched upon. An overview of FS characteristics, options for FS collection and treatment is provided in Chpt. 3 (Annex 7.2 provides a more extended overview of selected treatment technologies). The chapter also contains a discussion on treatment standards.
Chpt. 4 provides the reader with accounts of initiatives for improved FS management in two selected cities in Asia (Vientiane, Laos and Nam Dinh, Vietnam) and in Africa (Kumasi, Ghana, and Bamako, Mali). Each case is concluded with a short statement on the lesson learnt. Chpt. 5 contains a synopsis of opportunities and constraints, hindering factors and gaps-in-knowledge identified by making use of the cases presented in the preceding chapter. The chapter ends with a preliminary listing of presumed needs for capacity building in the area of FS management. In Chpt. 6, the authors draw the conclusions and list recommendations.
EAWAG/SANDEC, 74 pp.
Faecal Sludge Management: Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives.