Orissa has gradually become the poorest state in India. Within the
state, western/southern Orissa has for much longer been associated with
backwardness and poverty. This paper will analyse data (mainly from NSS,
between 1983/84 and 1999/2000) that shows how Orissa - or probably more
accurately - parts of Orissa, have gradually fallen behind India's
trend of poverty reduction. It will describe the characteristics of poor
people in those areas, emphasising the overlapping aspects of
deprivation: remoteness, rural location, possibly immobility (despite
large-scale distress migration), identity, education and health.
Statistical analysis will try to attribute the strength of various
factors in contributing to poverty.
The structure of the paper is as follows. Section one goes over some of
the familiar ground regarding NSS data, but emphasises differences
across regions (comparing this at times with other sources of data). It
then focuses on the differences within Orissa, using NSS region data and
information for Orissa's districts. The second section describes the
deprivation of social groups in India and in Orissa, and looks into the
question about the extent to which various dimensions overlap. Section
three presents a preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of government
policies, particularly those targeted to the poorest and tribal groups,
while the last section will - similarly exploratory - analyse the link
between citizens voice, the state's accountability, and continued
Extreme Deprivation in Remote Areas in India: Social exclusion as explanatory concept [Draft] presented at Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, 7-9 April 2003. Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), Manchester, UK, 21 pp.
Extreme Deprivation in Remote Areas in India: Social exclusion as explanatory concept [Draft]