Orissa has gradually become the poorest state in India. Within the state, western/southern Orissa has for much longer been associated with backwardness and poverty. This paper will analyse data (mainly from NSS, between 1983/84 and 1999/2000) that shows how Orissa - or probably more accurately - parts of Orissa, have gradually fallen behind India's trend of poverty reduction. It will describe the characteristics of poor people in those areas, emphasising the overlapping aspects of deprivation: remoteness, rural location, possibly immobility (despite large-scale distress migration), identity, education and health. Statistical analysis will try to attribute the strength of various factors in contributing to poverty.
The structure of the paper is as follows. Section one goes over some of the familiar ground regarding NSS data, but emphasises differences across regions (comparing this at times with other sources of data). It then focuses on the differences within Orissa, using NSS region data and information for Orissa's districts. The second section describes the deprivation of social groups in India and in Orissa, and looks into the question about the extent to which various dimensions overlap. Section three presents a preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of government policies, particularly those targeted to the poorest and tribal groups, while the last section will - similarly exploratory - analyse the link between citizens voice, the state's accountability, and continued deprivation.
Extreme Deprivation in Remote Areas in India: Social exclusion as explanatory concept [Draft] presented at Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, 7-9 April 2003. Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), Manchester, UK, 21 pp.