We have used a genotype-independent transformation system involving particle gun bombardment of immature embryos to genetically engineer rice as part of a programme to develop resistance to nematodes. Efficient tissue culture, regeneration, DNA delivery and selection methodologies have been established for elite African varieties (‘ITA212’, ‘IDSA6’, ‘LAC23’, ‘WAB56-104’). Twenty-five transformed clones containing genes coding for an engineered cysteine proteinase inhibitor (oryzacystatin-IΔD86, OC-IΔD86), hygromycin resistance (aphIV) and β-glucuronidase (gusA) were recovered from the four varieties. Transformed plants were regenerated from all clones and analysed by PCR, Southern and western blot. Detectable levels of OC-IΔD86 (up to 0.2% total soluble protein) in plant roots were measured in 12 out of 25 transformed rice lines. This level of expression resulted in a significant 55% reduction in egg production by Meloidogyne incognita.
Vain, P.; Worland, B.; Clarke, M.C.; Richard, G.; Beavis, M.; Liu, H.; Kohli, A.; Leech, M.; Snape, J.; Christou, P.; Atkinson, H. Expression of an engineered cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Oryzacystatin-I&#916;D86) for nematode resistance in transgenic rice plants. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics (1998) 96 (2) 266-271. [DOI: 10.1007/s001220050735]