Owing to the development of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae, there is a need to develop chemical alternatives for use on mosquito nets. Synthetic insect repellents are widely used for personal protection as skin or clothing applications. The efficacy of repellent-treated nets (RTN) was evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d’Ivoire against pyrethroid-resistant populations of An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The repellents tested were DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 7.9 g/m2 and two formulations of ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535) at 7.6 g/m2 and 7.3 g/m2. Over 45 nights there was a 74–82% reduction in the number of An. gambiae entering the huts containing RTNs but no significant reduction in entry of C. quinquefasciatus. There was a 63–64% reduction in the proportion of An. gambiae blood feeding but no reduction in the proportion of C. quinquefasciatus blood feeding in huts with RTNs. An unexpected result was the 69–76% mortality of An. gambiae and 51–61% mortality of C. quinquefasciatus in huts containing RTNs. Treated filter paper bioassays in WHO test kits confirmed that confined contact with DEET induces mortality. The DEET-based product provided better and longer protection; tunnel test bioassays confirmed that residual activity lasted for up to 6 weeks. Application of repellents to nets warrants further investigation and development.
N&#8217;Guessan, R.; Rowland, M.; Bli Kesse, N.; Carnevale, P.; Traore-Lamizana Moumouni. Evaluation of synthetic repellents on mosquito nets in experimental huts against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2006) 100 (12) 1091-1097. [DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.04.005]