Published information on the incidence of pathogens in the field and laboratory infections of Hypsipyla spp. with entomopathogens is reviewed. In addition, some preliminary results of field collections from Ghana and Costa Rica are presented. Fungal pathogens from the Deuteromycetes have been isolated from both H. robusta Moore and H. grandella Zeller. Mermithid nematodes, Hexamermis spp., have been frequently isolated from larvae in the field and incidence of infection with these pathogens can reach significant levels. Microsporidia have been found in cadavers of larvae collected in the field but none have been identified so far. A number of pathogens of other Lepidoptera have been shown to be infectious to H. grandella, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Deuteromycete fungi and a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) from Autographa californica. Hypsipyla spp. are difficult targets for microbial control, since the larvae are cryptic, occur at low density and occur sporadically. In addition, there is a low damage threshold, the plant is susceptible for a number of years and the susceptible part of the plant will rapidly outgrow any surface application. Key features of the biology of entomopathogens with relevance to the control of low density and cryptic pests are discussed. In the light of this experience, we discuss strategies to improve the possibilities of microbial control of this pest and suggest areas for research.
Hauxwell, C.; Vargas, C.; Opuni Frimpong, E.; Floyd, R.B. Entomopathogens for control of Hypsipyla spp. Paper presented at the Workshop on Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae, Sri Lanka. August 1996. In: ACIAR Proceedings Number 97, Canberra Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Australia (1996) 139 pp. ISBN 0-642-45621-6