This paper reviews empirical evidence on the linkages between gender, energy and HIV/AIDs, malaria, TB and other major diseases. Firstly the study explores possible linkages between gender, energy and HIV/AIDs, malaria, TB and other major diseases. It then assesses whether there is empirical evidence, both quantitative and qualitative on the linkages explored. The study then assesses the available evidence to examine whether and energy and gender are critical to these linkages. There are two aspects from which energy and gender can be viewed in the debates surrounding the achieving of MDG 5. Firstly, the aspect of energy as an enabler of services vital for combating HIV/AIDs, malaria, TB and other major diseases. Secondly are the gender impacts of lack of modern energy services in the interactions of everyday life of human beings, both infected and affected by HIV/AIDs, malaria, TB and other major diseases.
The organization of the paper is follows. The first part of the assessment is a brief review of a brief overview that provides the picture of HIV/AIDs, malaria and TB from a global perspective in terms of the magnitude of the problem and geographical prevalence. The second section briefly explores the gender aspects of HIV/AIDs, malaria and TB, exploring the key factors in gender issues underlying these diseases. Section three discusses the scope and methodological issues and explores the possible linkages between gender, energy and HIV/AIDs, malaria and TB. Section four provides the empirical evidence from reviewed literature, on the various linkages discussed in section three. It then discusses their implications within the constraints of the available evidence (for or against the possible linkages) or lack of evidence as well as gaps in knowledge. The discussion of the evidence is provided in the main text, with details of the studies assessed provided in annexes. Where data in the study in assessed by gender and where there is quantitative or qualitative data, this is made explicit in both the main text and annexes. Section five concludes the paper with a discussion on what the evidence so far shows, identifies the most important connections in the context of the available evidence and provides a summary of the research and actions needed in order to address knowledge gaps identified by the review. Section six is a set of recommendations made in accordance to the findings of the study. The study scope has been limited to developing countries, particularly focusing on Africa, Asia and Latin America where HIV/AIDs, malaria and TB exacts the highest human and economic price.
MDG Empirical Review Paper, 25 pp.