This research aims at assessing whether gender and energy is a key variable in reducing child mortality. It aims to answer the question: \"Does empirical evidence show that the gender perspective of energy is a key variable in reducing child mortality?\"
By reviewing empirical evidence on the linkages between gender, energy and child mortality, the study aims to assess whether any linkages between gender, energy and child mortality exist and whether gender and energy is a key variable in reducing child mortality and hence contributing to meeting MDG 4. This would then provide answers as to whether addressing gender and energy issues can significantly contribute to the reduction of child mortality. The linkages between gender, energy and child mortality are explored by reviewing available quantitative and qualitative literature on impacts of energy poverty on child health and mortality as well as the impacts of modern energy services on child mortality and health. Since child mortality and health are intimately intertwined with maternal health, where necessary, the study makes reference to the linkages between gender, energy and maternal health, as it relates to child mortality.
The paper is organised as follows. The first part of the assessment is a brief review of child mortality situation in the world and identifies where the problem is critical and lists key factors in child mortality. The second section further explores the key factors in child mortality, the magnitude of their contribution to child mortality and then assesses the possible linkages between these key determinants and gender and energy. Section three provides the empirical evidence from reviewed literature, on the various linkages discussed in section two. It then discusses their implications within the constraints of the available evidence (for or against the possible linkages) or lack of evidence as well as gaps in knowledge. Section four concludes the paper with a discussion on what the evidence so far shows, identifies the most important connections in the context of the available evidence and provides a summary of the research and actions needed in order to address knowledge gaps identified by the review. Section five is a set of recommendations made in accordance to the findings of the study. The study scope has been limited to developing countries, particularly focusing on Africa, Asia and Latin America where access to modern energy services is lowest and child mortality is high.
MDG Empirical Review Paper, 105 pp.