By age 15, 37% of the Younger Cohort were behind the normative grade for their age (i.e. over-age), compared with 4% of the Older Cohort at the same age. Children from the Younger Cohort are making better progress in their education than the Older Cohort. However, there are large differentials for both cohorts associated with poverty, ethnicity, area of residence, and maternal education.
In spite of improvements in performance, the majority of children in the Younger Cohort at age 15 are unable to solve simple mathematical problems.
Children who have lived all of their lives in urban areas show performance in tests that are between 13 and nine percent points above children who always lived in rural areas. The performance of children who migrated from rural to urban areas lies in-between.
For the Younger Cohort, there is a large gap (almost 25 percent points) in vocabulary between groups of children that are noticeable from age five. This gap diminishes slightly, to 16 percent points, by age 15.
Young Lives is an international study of childhood poverty, following the lives of 12,000 children in 4 countries (Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam) over 15 years. Young Lives is funded by the UK Department for International Development)
Cueto, Santiago and Claudia Felipe (2018), Education and Learning: Preliminary Findings from the Round 5 Survey in Peru. Young Lives Fact Sheet Round 5. Oxford: Young Lives
Published 1 February 2018