The question for this helpdesk query is:
- what were the main drivers of ‘militancy’ (conflict) in the Swat valley of Pakistan in 2008-2009?
- what has been the impact of interventions, such as the Nizam-e-Adl Regulation 2009, in addressing key grievances?
There is a substantial body of literature that explores drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, but assessments of the impact of interventions are more limited. While the drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley have some unique characteristics, it is difficult to separate these from the genesis of militancy in the wider Afghanistan and Pakistan border region given their shared history.
historical factors linked to the colonial and post-colonial legacy of the Swat Valley’s absorption into the British Empire and later independent Pakistan
religious factors and the role religious leaders play in Swat Valley society
political and judicial factors such as the underdeveloped judicial system and ineffective local government which created social cleavages and played a major role in the rise of TNSM and Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) as political forces in the area
cross-border ethnic ties and insurgent activity in the context of Pakistan/Afghanistan
women’s participation in education and work
marginalisation and inequity
Attempts to resolve the underlying drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley have included military, humanitarian, developmental and legislative interventions. The Pakistan Government’s response to the conflict has been the adoption of a three-pronged strategy based on dialogue, development, and deterrence. The Nizam-e-Adl Regulation formally enshrined Sharia law in the Malakand in a bid to placate insurgents and to address grievances that are understood to drive support for Sharia law. However, literature suggests that more needs to be done to implement the objectives set out in this legislation.
Avis, W. (2016). Drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, Pakistan (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1,398). GSDRC, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2016) 18p