Symptom production in groundnut plants infected with groundnut rosette virus (GRV) depends on the presence of satellite RNA (sat-RNA) in the GRV culture, and sat-RNA variants that induce only mild symptoms are known. One such variant drastically diminished the replication of GRV genomic RNA in infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This down-regulating ability did not involve either of the two open reading frames in the sat-RNA but was controlled by a region near its 5′ end, which is required for sat-RNA replication. When N. benthamiana plants were inoculated with GRV and the mild satellite and challenged by inoculation with a GRV isolate (YB) containing a sat-RNA that induces yellow blotch symptoms, no symptoms appeared and little GRV genomic RNA or sat-RNA was detected in the plants, provided the two inoculations were no more than 2 days apart. A GRV isolate containing a sat-RNA that neither induces symptoms in N. benthamiana nor affects genomic RNA accumulation also provided protection against yellow blotch symptom production if inoculated before or up to 2 days after isolate YB. However, in this case protection was incomplete and both GRV RNA and sat-RNA accumulated to normal levels. It is suggested that sequences from the mild sat-RNA may provide a novel source of resistance against rosette disease.
Taliansky, M.E.; Robinson, D.J. Down-regulation of Groundnut Rosette Virus Replication by a Variant Satellite RNA. Virology (1997) 230 (2) 228-235. [DOI: 10.1006/viro.1997.8471]