There is growing concern that HIV is spreading to low-risk population groups and to women in India. Data from sentinel surveillance of women attending antenatal clinics in 2001 showed a prevalence of up to 1.75% . There is also evidence of spread to rural areas: among a 1998 sample of 1251 women in a rural area accessible to the large city of Pune, Maharashtra, the prevalence was 1.2% . Although generalization to the national level from regional data is not appropriate, and limited information is available about the actual prevalence of HIV in the rural areas of the different states, the large absolute numbers potentially at risk indicate a major challenge to India's health security.
AIDS (2003) 17 2008-9