Identify any examples of integration of disability issues within cash transfer and broader social protection programmes, strategies and policies, in low-income contexts.
The literature suggests that the key rationale behind disability
inclusive social protection policies and strategies is the UN Convention
on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), along with the
susceptibility of persons with disabilities to chronic poverty and
social exclusion. Examples are provided from Kenya, Rwanda and
Disability inclusive social protection programmes are designed to
alleviate the additional cost of the barriers faced by people with
disabilities. The implementation of disability inclusive social
protection policies faces a number of problems as social protection
programmes do not reach the vast majority of people with disabilities.
They face physical barriers, communication barriers, attitudinal
barriers, and a lack of sensitivity or awareness.
- Types of programmes: (i) targeted specifically at people with
disabilities; (ii) mainstream programmes; and (iii) targeted
mainstream programmes explicitly including people with disabilities.
- Targeting: programmes can target all disabled people, or be means
tested for a particular level or type of disability, or targeted at
children with disabilities. This tends to be medically focused but
targeting on the basis of a combination of medical and social criteria
is best as this recognises people’s capabilities if given the right
opportunities. Examples of disability inclusive social protection
programmes are provided from Zambia, Uganda, India, Afghanistan, and
Indonesia, amongst others.
- Challenges for disability inclusive social protection programmes
include: lack of data, costly monitoring systems, costs outweighing
the benefits, lack of awareness and access, insufficient budgets, and
a disincentive to work.
Social protection programmes on their own will not eliminate the
vulnerabilities persons with disabilities face. Therefore complementary
programmes are needed to create an enabling environment for people with
disabilities, such as adaptations to the built environment, inclusive
education, rehabilitation and vocational training services, and the
enactment and enforcement of disability legislation.
Rohwerder, B. Disability inclusion in social protection (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1069). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2014) 12 pp.