DFID Evidence Paper: Water, sanitation and hygiene


This WASH evidence paper was commissioned by the DFID Water and Sanitation (WASH) and Research and Evidence Division (RED) teams and undertaken by the DFID-funded Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) research programme consortium. It is not a policy document, and does not represent DFID's policy position. The paper aims to:

  • Provide an accessible guide to existing evidence including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts on health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic and social impacts of WASH
  • Present the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of interventions on WASH
  • Identify what we do know and also what we do not know, and assess the robustness of the available evidence relating to the impact of WASH interventions.
  • Disaggregate the benefits, where possible, by gender and poverty and the distribution of the global impacts across regions and economic status of countries.



Cairncross, S.; Cumming, O.; Jeandron, A.; Rheingans, R.; Ensink, J.; Brown, J.; Cavill, S.; Baker, S.; Schmidt, W.P.; Amery, J.; Bibby, S.; Harvey, M.; Howard, G.; Mulligan, J.; O’Connor, H.; Ryan-Collins, L.; Swann, P.; Wijesekera, S.; Woolnough, D. DFID Evidence Paper: Water, sanitation and hygiene. (2013) 128 pp.

DFID Evidence Paper: Water, sanitation and hygiene

Published 1 January 2013