To identify the optimum standards and actions it is necessary to predict how roads of different designs perform (or deteriorate), to predict the effects of different types of rehabilitation and maintenance on the rates of deterioration and to calculate how the deterioration influences the costs borne by the road users. In this way optimum engineering solutions can be selected, based on economic principles, for the wide ranges of conditions encountered throughout the world.
Paper for ADB Transport Forum, 9-12 September 2008. 8 pp.
DF 63. Whole life costs. A Tool for Low Volume Rural Road Managers.