The purpose of this project is to provide enabling \"clean-gene\" technology for rice genetic engineering to related DFID programmes. An already developed Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was used to develop new \"clean-gene\" technology aimed at producing rice plants free of undesirable selectable marker genes. New binary vectors able to transfer multiple TDNAs into rice plants were constructed. Hundreds of independently transformed rice plant lines and thousands of progeny plants were produced and analysed providing proof of concept for \"cleangene\" transformation technology in rice. The transgenic technologies developed in R7548-1 allowed DFID collaborative programmes (R8031) to introduce nematode resistance genes into rice without any selectable marker genes. The absence of selectable marker genes in transgenic crops is a key issue for biosafety and public acceptance of GMOs in developing countries.