This report documents the findings from research activities undertaken in Hanoi, Vietnam. The aim of the research was to analyse decentralised approaches towards wastewater and faecal sludge management and to assess the impacts of these schemes at the local level and their potential implications at the policy level. The research focused on the experiences from two areas in Hanoi to gain greater insight into key features of decentralisation related to:
• Participatory planning and community involvement in decision-making.
• Decentralised management arrangements for operation and maintenance.
• Application and operation of decentralised technologies.
• Financing arrangements and economics of decentralised initiatives.
Initially, the study set out to review existing policy and practices related to wastewater management in Vietnam and to consider the potential opportunities and constraints for decentralisation. Subsequently, in relation to the case studies, more in-depth research activities were undertaken related to the technologies and their operation, management arrangements, financial and economic assessment, and perceptions from local stakeholders of the relative merits of these systems. As well as a collation of technical data, these research activities included semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a range of local stakeholders.