Identifying correlates of immunity or susceptibility to disease promotes understanding of pathogenesis and development of diagnostic tools, treatments, and vaccines. There is evidence that type 1 cytokine responses are associated with protection against tuberculosis, and suppression of type 1, or switching to type 2 responses, with susceptibility, but this has not been studied prospectively. We studied a cohort of 631 HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. At enrolment we performed whole blood cultures for type 1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-2) and type 2/immunosuppressive (IL-5, IL-10) responses to mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative [PPD] and culture filtrate proteins [CFP]). The incidence of tuberculosis was not associated with IFN-γ responses, but was higher among participants with IL-2 responses (adjusted rate ratios [RR]: PPD 3.48; CFP 3.99; P
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2004) Volume 98, Issue 11, pp. 660-670 [doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.01.007].