This paper explores the simultaneous processes of inclusion and exclusion as they have occurred in different places and at different times in order to understand better the vision of society, the material interests and the notions of identity which have helped to delineate different understandings of the concept. The article aims to contribute to the development of a research agenda on the theme of 'inclusive citizenship', particularly the challenges it presents in the context of poorer southern countries today. Building on Fraser and Gordon's historical analysis of civic and social citizenship, it is argued that the notions of citizenship constructed in the West are inappropriate in post-colonial contexts, in which pre-existing differences within the population have been exacerbated or artificially suppressed by the strategic manoeuvrings of colonial powers. As a result prevailing ideas about personhood, identity and affiliation lead to fractured notions of citizenship and exclusionary outcomes. The author concludes with a proposal of four themes for future research into inclusive citizenship in the South.
Kabeer, N. Citizenship, affiliation and exclusion: perspectives from the south. IDS Bulletin (2002) 33 (2) 1-15. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2002.tb00021.x]