Four panels of the São Paulo conference were devoted entirely to transnational themes and many of the remaining 55 panels touched on migrant transnationalism in one sense or another. This paper sets out a summary of the main themes of discussion. Since the conference focused on solutions to refugee displacement the following three sections consider contributions relating transnational interactions to return, resettlement and local integration with a fourth section on transnational concerns in protracted refugee situations and a final section considering aspects of transnationalism relating to other aspects of forced migration.
Citizens Without Borders’?: Discussions of Transnationalism and Forced Migrants at the 9th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration, São Paulo, Brazil January 2005