The project was developed as a collaborative partnership, carried out by
a team of colleagues from the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and
the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, UK. The first,
central, goal of the investigation was to provide a preliminary,
empirical database upon which to consider the impact of work on the
access, and participation, of children in formal primary education and
to consider the consequences of this in terms of policy suggestions and
A second goal was to strengthen collaboration between the two
institutions and broaden their respective research experience and
Specific aims of the project were:
1) To gain an understanding of the extent to which household demand for
child labour determines children's access to, and participation in,
2) To determine how the household division of labour, based on the
structure of the family kin system, affects girls' and boys' access
to, and participation in, primary schooling.
3) To identify the nature and extent of child labour in a number of
representative geographical areas under the different categories of: a)
household chores; b) indirect contributions to household earnings
through unpaid assistance to household members; c) directly through
waged employment or petty trading; and d) other compulsory labour of the
worst form (Article 3 of Convention 182, International Labour
4) To identify the relative importance of such variables as household
location (urban/rural) and household background characteristics
(education, health, hygiene/sanitation, material conditions and other
economic characteristics) in explaining household demand for, and
children's involvement in, labour.
5) To determine the relative importance of community, household and
school inputs, as well as the role of contextual factors (political
will/environment, local and national government policies), cultural
conditions (macro, meso and micro economic conditions) in determining
girls' and boys' access to, and participation in, primary schooling.
Educational Paper No. 48, DFID, London, UK, ISBN 1 86192 536 0, 90 pp.
Child labour and its impact on children’s access to and participation in primary education: A case study from Tanzania