Cryostat sections of juvenile and adult female stages of the soybean cyst-nematode, Heterodera glycines, were incubated with 4 different naphthylamide-linked peptide substrates to localize and characterize proteinase activity within the animal. Detected activity was restricted to the intestine and 2 distinct classes of proteinase were identified on the basis of substrate specificity and sensitivity to plant proteinase inhibitors. A cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase activity capable of hydrolysing the synthetic substrates Z-Ala-Arg-Arg-MNA and Z-Phe-Arg-MNA but not Z-Arg-Arg-MNA or L-Arg-NA was inhibited by an engineered variant of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from rice (Oc-IδD86). The cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-MNA was sensitive to inhibition by a combination of Oc-IδD86 and cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify fragments of cysteine proteinase genes from 2 cyst-nematodes, H. glycines and Globodera pallida. Comparison of the H. glycines fragment with known genes established highest homology to cathepsin L-like genes. In contrast, the amplified G. pallida fragment displayed greatest homology to cathepsin B-like genes from Caenorhabditis elegans.
Lilley, C.J.; Urwin, P.E.; McPherson, M.J.; Atkinson, H.J. Characterization of intestinally active proteinases of cyst nematodes. Parasitology (1996) 113 (04) 415-424. [DOI: 10.1017/S0031182000066555]