Zambia is one of the most urbanised countries in sub-Saharan Africa. High rural-urban migration in the period from 1980 to the early 1990s culminated in about 40% of the population living in urban areas. Coupled with dwindling income levels, this led to a proliferation of informal, unplanned settlements where it is estimated 60% of the urban population live. This summary report provides the results of a case study carried out into the effects of economic regulation of a public water provider, complemented by alternative provision, with a particular focus on the needs of the poor. Four housing sites were selected for the study with varying levels of coverage receiving water from community-managed boreholes, network connections and often a combination of the two.


Center for Water Science, Cranfield University, UK, 8 pp.

Case Study: Zambia.

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