Case Study: Ghana.
Ghana's public provider of urban water services has been the subject of continual public sector reform since early structural adjustment reforms began in Sub-Saharan Africa. The progression towards private-sector involvement continues to be hotly debated. The independent regulator, responsible for economic and service quality regulation, was formed as part of a move to attract international investment and protect the interests of the utility customer. The urban poor of Ghana rely on vendors or tankers who charge from 3 to 15 times the normal utility price. Low-income, multi-occupancy tenement housing, or ‚compounds‛ make up 70% of the housing in urban areas. The poor and vulnerable live in slums or illegal / unplanned areas that lack any basic infrastructure.
Center for Water Science, Cranfield University, UK, 8 pp.