Carotenoids of Sweet Potato, Cassava, and Maize and Their Use in Bread and Flour Fortification
The carotenoid compositions of sweet potato roots, cassava roots, and maize kernels are reviewed in this chapter, attesting to wide between-variety and between-crop variations. ß-Carotene predominates in sweet potato and cassava, whereas lutein and zeaxanthin prevail in maize. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes with considerable amounts of ß-carotene are available and have been shown to improve the vitamin A status of children. Raising the provitamin A contents of cassava and maize is still being pursued, especially by biofortification. Losses of carotenoids during processing and storage of the flour produced from these staple foods have been reported, and influencing factors have been identified. Substitution of part of the wheat flour by orange-fleshed sweet potato flour is restricted by the characteristic color and flavor of sweet potato in bread, but greater substitution is acceptable in other baked products. Use of cassava and maize flours in several products has been shown to be technologically feasible, but carotenoid retention still needs to be investigated.
Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, (2011), Elsevier Inc, ISBN: 978-0-12-380886-8, pp. 301-311 [doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-380886-8.10028-5]