Using a unique dataset we are able to examine the determinants of identities in Sudan. We find that identification in Sudan is high and that there is little evidence that such identities compete with one another. In terms of socio-economic variables, poorer people tend to have greater identification. Tribal identification declines with the level of education, as does identity with religion and the Arab world. We also find that being asked for a bribe is associated with significantly lower levels of identity, particularly those linked with the tribe, the state (i.e. a region) and the nation. The evidence suggests that this is consistent with a large literature linking bribery to reduced trust and identification in national institutions and a nascent literature linking bribery to specific personal characteristics. Finally we analyse the probability of being asked for a bribe.
Hamilton, A.; Hudson, J. Bribery and Identification: Evidence from Sudan. University of Bath, Bath, UK (2014) 24 pp. [Bath Economics Research Papers No.21/14]