Augmenting Groundwater in Kathmandu Valley: Challenges and possibilities


The goal of this paper is to summarize existing knowledge on groundwater conditions in the Kathmandu Valley with the objective of identifying potential avenues for enhancing groundwater availability to meet municipal water supply needs. The paper is based on an extensive survey of previous published and unpublished reports and accessible data combined with field visits and limited interpretive analysis. Despite extensive efforts, it proved impossible to obtain access to a few key reports.

The analysis of existing information suggests that substantial opportunity may exist for increasing municipal water supplies in the Kathmandu Valley by conjunctive management of surface and groundwater sources including direct and indirect recharge and rainwater harvesting. Particular opportunities for this may exist along the northern portion of the valley in the Gokarna and Manohara areas. Confirming the ability to substantially increase available supplies from in-valley sources would require a systematic technical evaluation of aquifer characteristics in these areas. It would also require effective control over urban development in key recharge areas. While development has yet to occur, the Kathmandu Urban Area is expanding rapidly and active protection is likely to be required for this option to remain valid.


Dixit, A.; Madhukar Upadhya. Augmenting Groundwater in Kathmandu Valley:Challenges and possibilities. (2005)

Augmenting Groundwater in Kathmandu Valley: Challenges and possibilities

Published 1 January 2005