Many people in developing countries rely upon
untreated groundwater supplies for their drinking
water. These supplies are obtained from drilled
boreholes or tubewells, dugwells and springs.
Such sources are usually of good quality and
much better than some traditional sources of
supply, for example ponds and streams. However,
groundwater can become contaminated and there
is special concern that the introduction of on-site
sanitation systems may in certain circumstances
contribute to contamination of drinking water
The purpose of this manual is to provide
guidance on how to assess and reduce the risk of
contamination of groundwater supplies from onsite
sanitation systems and is aimed at those
responsible for planning low cost water supply
and sanitation schemes.
It is anticipated that the readership for this
manual will include both those with good technical
knowledge of the problem (e.g. water and
sanitation engineers) and those who are less
familiar with the scientific and technical arguments.
This manual aims to be accessible to everyone with
a role in the planning of water supply and
sanitation at programme level.