Mycobacteria are nonmotile, acid-fast, weakly Gram-positive bacilli. One of the most pathogenic members of the genus is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the species responsible for tuberculosis (TB). With the explosion of the AIDS epidemic, the global TB epidemic has grown, as HIV-infected people are more susceptible to mycobacterial infections. This book chapter focuses primarily on drug therapy for TB, covering both current drugs and novel compounds under development. Current treatments include: Rifamycin class drugs, insoniazid and related compounds, pyrazinamide and related compounds, aminoglycosides and polypeptides, and quinolones. New research areas include: Nitroimidizole class, diraylquinolines, pyrroles, oxazolidinones, and macrolides.
In: Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry II. Eds. J. B. Taylor; D. J. Triggle. Elsevier: Oxford, UK. 2007, pp. 699-730