In this chapter, the authors focus on ethical trading schemes that incorporate voluntary regulation, by using artisanal gold mining in Tanzania and the sale of gold through international fair trade markets as an exemplar to consider the development dynamics that emerge from ethical schemes. Adding value through ethics is closely associated with the use of voluntary (non-state) regulation. Fair trade has historically sought social justice for marginalized small-scale producers in developing countries by addressing the international terms of trade.
Fisher, E.; Childs, J. An ethical turn in African mining: Voluntary regulation through fair trade. In: Mining and social transformation in Africa: Mineralizing and democratizing trends in artisanal production. Routledge, Abingdon, UK (2014) 130-147. ISBN 9780415833707