Age-related mechanisms of propanil tolerance in Jungle-rice, Echinochloa colona
Uptake and metabolism of propanil were measured in both susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Jungle-rice, Echinochloa colona (L.) link at different growth stages. Results showed that there was no significant difference in uptake between S and R biotypes of E. colona at any given growth stage, but that uptake was significantly reduced at older plant growth stages in all biotypes studied. Metabolism of propanil was more rapid in R biotypes than in S biotypes at all growth stages studied. Specific and total aryl acylamidase activity, responsible for the first stage of propanil metabolism, was higher in R biotypes than in S at all growth stages, but declined to about 50% of the maximum at older growth stages, confirming the importance of this enzyme in conferring resistance to this herbicide. The area of necrosis that developed around a single drop of propanil deposited on the adaxial leaf surface was used to assess the degree of propanil resistance; it was found that resistance increased at older E. colona growth stages in contrast to the rate of propanil metabolism and amidase activity. Treatment of leaves with the amidase inhibitors, carbaryl or piperophos, simultaneously with propanil, caused a decrease in resistance at growth stages where amidase activity was greatest. This treatment was less effective at older growth stages. These results show that, in E. colona, propanil metabolism is important for conferring resistance in younger plants (four-six-leaf stage). It is suggested that restricted uptake confers resistance in older plants.
Pesticide Science (1995) 43 (4) 347-354 [DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780430415]