There are a number of compelling reasons to focus on the ways in which
the processes and relations of adverse incorporation and social
exclusion (AISE) underpin chronic poverty. In particular, AISE research
draws attention to the causal processes that lead poverty to persist,
and to the politics and political economy of these processes and
associated relationships over time. Specific dimensions of AISE are
explored in relation to chronic poverty - namely political, economic,
socio-cultural and spatial - and are found to relate closely to
long-term historical processes, particularly concerning the nature and
forms of capitalism, different stages and types of state formation, and
institutionalised patterns of social norms and attitudes. However, it is
also stressed that much of the promise of AISE research lies in its
capacity to cross analytical boundaries and capture the
multi-dimensional and interlocking character of long-term deprivation.
This analysis suggests a number of fruitful areas for research, most of
which are currently under-explored in poverty research. In
methodological terms, there are benefits to adopting integrated
qualitative-quantitative approaches when investigating AISE, although it
is argued that (a) the relational nature of AISE and the limitations of
quantitative data may dictate that qualitative work should take priority
here and (b) that more historical and theoretically oriented forms of
research are particularly appropriate in studying AISE. To think about
challenging AISE involves shifting the frame from policy to politics and
from specific anti-poverty interventions to longer-term development
strategies, particularly in terms of industrialisation and labour market
restructuring, moves towards developmental states and supporting shifts
from clientelism to citizenship. However, a range of more immediate
development policy interventions may also be able to make headway in
challenging the forms of AISE that perpetuate poverty.
Adverse incorporation, social exclusion and chronic poverty, CPRC Working Paper No. 81, Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), Manchester, UK, ISBN: 1-904049-80-X, iii + 31 pp.
Adverse incorporation, social exclusion and chronic poverty. CPRC Working Paper No. 81.