This paper reviews Government policies and strategies in Uganda from the aspect of their ability to address malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency, and considers means by which biofortification of staple food crops can support this policy. The rationale for focusing on policies and strategies in these sectors is based on the UNICEF conceptualization of the causation of nutritional outcomes. The conceptual framework presents a generalized understanding of how malnutrition is the outcome of specific development problems related directly to the level of dietary intake and the health status of a given individual. It theorizes that inadequate dietary intake (in energy, protein, vitamins and minerals) and disease are the immediate causes of malnutrition. To ensure adequate dietary intake and absence of disease, three underlying conditions need to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely: (i) household food security; (ii) adequate care of children and women; and (iii) access to health services and a healthy environment.
In the chapters that follow, the major aspects of Ugandan poverty, health, agriculture, and nutrition are summarized in detail; then progress towards attending the Millenium Development Goals is reviewed. The review of the existing policy context forms the foundation for developing a set of recommendations for how to successfully integrate the introduction of biofortified crops into the current policy environment of Uganda to maximize its contribution to reducing micronutrient malnutrition.