In 2004, Malawi began scaling up its national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. Because of limited treatment options, population-level surveillance of acquired human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) is critical to ensuring long-term treatment success. The World Health Organization target for clinic-level HIVDR prevention at 12 months after ART initiation is ≥70%. In 2007, viral load and HIVDR genotyping was performed in a retrospective cohort of 596 patients at 4 ART clinics. Overall, HIVDR prevention (using viral load ≤400 copies/mL) was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67% - 77%; range by site, 60% - 83%) and detected HIVDR was 3.4% (95% CI, 1.8% - 5.8%; range by site, 2.5% - 4.7%). Results demonstrate virological suppression and HIVDR consistent with previous reports from sub-Saharan Africa. High rates of attrition because of loss to follow-up were noted and merit attention.
Wadonda-Kabondo, N.; Hedt, B.; Oosterhout, J.J.; Moyo, K.; Limbambala, E.; Bello, G.; Chilima, B.; Schouten, E.; Harries, A.; Massaquoi, M.; Porter, C.; Weigel, R.; Hosseinipour, M.; Aberle-Grasse, J.; Jordan, MR.; Kabuluzi, S.; Bennett, DE. A Retrospective Survey of HIV Drug Resistance Among Patients 1 Year After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy at 4 Clinics in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases (2012) 54 (suppl 4) S355-S361. [DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis004]