Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), provides only limited protection against certain forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. While infection with Mtb can be treated with antibiotics, the therapy is expensive, toxic, and requires several months for treatment. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant strains limits the impact of antibiotics and underlines the importance of developing a more effective vaccine to control this disease. Given that pulmonary TB is the most common form of the disease, a vaccine capable of inducing lung-resident immunity may be advantageous for combating this infection. New advances in pulmonary delivery make this route of vaccination feasible and affordable. Here, we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolized Ad35-based vaccine, AERAS-402, delivered to the lungs in nonhuman primates as part of a GLP acute and chronic toxicology and safety study. In this study, animals received three high doses (1 x 1011 vp) of AERAS-402 by inhalation via a nebulizer at 1-week intervals. Aerosol delivery of AERAS-402 resulted in an increase in relative lung weights as well as microscopic findings in the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue, and the naso-oropharynx that were consistent with the induction of an immune response during the acute phase. These findings resolved by the chronic phase and were considered to be non-adverse. Furthermore, we observed transient vaccine-specific immune responses in the peripheral blood as well as sustained high-level polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of vaccinated nonhuman primates. The data suggest that pulmonary delivery of Ad35-based vaccines can be safe and can induce potent lung-resident immunity.
Hokey, D.A.; Wachholder, R.; Darrah P. A.; Bolton, D.L.; Barouch, D. H.; Hill, K.; Dheenadhayalan, V.; Schwander, S.; Godin, C.S.; Douoguih, M.; Pau, M.G.; Seder, R.A.; Roederer, M.; Sadoff, J.C.; Sizemore, D. A nonhuman primate toxicology and immunogenicity study evaluating aerosol delivery of AERAS-402/Ad35 Vaccine: Evidence for transient t cell responses in peripheral blood and robust sustained responses in the lungs. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics (2014) 10 (8) [DOI: 10.4161/hv.29108]
A Nonhuman Primate Toxicology and Immunogenicity Study Evaluating Aerosol Delivery of AERAS-402/Ad35 Vaccine: Evidence For Transient T Cell Responses in Peripheral Blood and Robust Sustained Responses in the Lungs