The case study in this research was chosen for inclusion following a first phase review of the use of livelihoods approaches in Tanzania, Uganda and Southern Africa. This paper presents a Sustainable Livelihood- (SL) grounded audit of the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA) in Uganda. The PMA is a holistic, strategic framework for eradicating poverty through multi-sectoral interventions aimed at enabling the small-scale subsistence farmers to improve their livelihoods in a sustainable manner. The case study is divided into two sections: the first a general introduction to the intervention; and the second, a structured response to a series of questions adapted from the sustainable livelihoods (SL) principles. SL principles are one element of sustainable livelihoods approaches. This research adopts these principles as a structuring tool and as a means of pinpointing the practical implications of adopting a sustainable livelihoods approach to development.