The case study in this research was chosen for inclusion following a first phase review of the use of livelihoods approaches in Tanzania, Uganda and Southern Africa. The major purpose of this study was to track the various HIV/AIDS interventions in Uganda, with a view to establishing the extent to which they represent the sustainable livelihoods principles, and their nature of impact on people's livelihoods. However, specific attention was given to the AIDS/STD Programme, which was a national programme but implemented at all the lower levels of government and communities. The case study is analysed according to a 'SL-grounded audit' and is divided into two sections: the first a general introduction to the intervention; and the second, a structured response to a series of questions adapted from the sustainable livelihoods (SL) principles. SL principles are one element of sustainable livelihoods approaches. This research adopts these principles as a structuring tool and as a means of pinpointing the practical implications of adopting a sustainable livelihoods approach to development.