Background Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients remains complex and demands easy to perform and accurate tests. Xpert®MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) is a molecular TB diagnostic test which is rapid and convenient; the test requires minimal human resources and reports results within two hours. The majority of performance studies of MTB/RIF have been performed in high HIV burden settings, thus TB diagnostic studies among HIV patients in low HIV prevalence settings such as Peru are still needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings From April 2010 to May 2011, HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of TB were enrolled from two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. Detection of TB by MTB/RIF was compared to a composite reference standard Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and liquid culture. Detection of rifampicin resistance was compared to the LJ proportion method. We included 131 patients, the median CD4 cell count was 154.5 cells/mm3 and 45 (34.4%) had TB. For TB detection among HIV patients, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 97.8% (95% CI 88.4–99.6) (44/45); specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 91.9–99.4) (84/86); the positive predictive value was 95.7% (95% CI 85.5–98.8) (44/46); and the negative predictive value, 98.8% (95% CI 93.6–99.8) (84/85). MTB/RIF detected 13/14 smear-negative TB cases, outperforming smear microscopy [97.8% (44/45) vs. 68.9% (31/45); p = 0.0002]. For rifampicin resistance detection, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 100% (95% CI 61.0–100.0) (6/6); specificity was 91.0% (95% CI 76.4–96.9) (30/33); the positive predictive value was 66.7% (95% CI 35.4–87.9) (6/9); and the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 88.7 –100.0) (30/30).
Conclusions/Significance In HIV patients in our population with a high clinical suspicion of TB, MTB/RIF performed well for TB diagnosis and outperformed smear microscopy.
Carriquiry, G.; Otero, L.; González-Lagos, E.; Zamudio, C.; Sánchez, E.; Nabeta, P.; Campos, M.; Echevarria, J.; Seas, C.; Gotuzzo, E. A Diagnostic Accuracy Study of Xpert®MTB/RIF in HIV-Positive Patients with High Clinical Suspicion of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. PLoS ONE (2012) 7 (9) e44626. [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044626]