Information on the rights and status of UK nationals living in the European Union, European Economic Area (EEA) and European Free Trade Area (EFTA), and Switzerland.
Staying up to date
When it is available, country-specific information will be added in the living in country guides for UK nationals moving or living abroad.
Current status of UK nationals in the EU
Until the UK leaves the EU, the UK remains a full member of the EU and UK nationals retain their legal status as EU citizens. As a UK national, there will be no change to your rights and status if you live in the EU while the UK remains in the EU.
Living and working in the EU
You can continue to:
receive healthcare in EU countries
collect your pension in EU countries
Travelling in the EU
Find out more in our guidance for travelling in Europe after the UK leaves the EU.
Progress in the negotiations: citizens’ rights
The UK and EU have agreed the full legal text of the draft Withdrawal Agreement in principle.
If approved, the Withdrawal Agreement will secure the rights of 1 million UK nationals living in the EU. The signed Agreement will provide certainty for you as a UK national and your family living in the EU. Most importantly, it will allow you to stay in the EU country where you are living after the UK leaves the EU.
The Agreement also sets out the terms for a time-limited implementation period. This means that all UK nationals lawfully residing in another EU Member State on 31 December 2020 will be covered by the Withdrawal Agreement.
During the implementation period, as a UK national you will be able to visit, live and work in the EU broadly as you do now. If you currently live in the EU and want to move to a different Member State, you will be able to continue to do so during the implementation period.
UK nationals and their families covered by the Agreement:
will continue to have broadly the same access to healthcare, pensions and other benefits as they currently do
will be able to leave their EU country of residence for up to 5 years without losing their right to return, if they have acquired the relevant residency status
UK nationals and their families covered by the Agreement should note that:
EU countries may require you as a UK national and your family members covered by the agreement to apply for a residency document or status conferring the right of residence
administrative procedures for these applications will be transparent, smooth and streamlined
where an application is required to obtain status, you will have until at least 6 months after the end of the Implementation Period to submit their applications
residence documents will be issued free of charge or for a charge not exceeding that imposed on nationals for the issuing of similar documents (such as passports)
if you hold, before the end of the Implementation Period, a valid permanent residence document or a valid domestic immigration document conferring a permanent right to reside, you will be able to exchange it for a new residence document free of charge. You may need to provide proof of identity and undergo criminality and security checks.
new administrative procedures or changes to existing administrative procedures will be decided by each EU country. We will publish details of these administrative procedures in our Living in country guides as soon as it becomes available.
An explainer of the Withdrawal Agreement is available.
Who will be covered by the Withdrawal Agreement
If you are a UK national lawfully residing in another EU country on 31 December 2020, you will be covered by the Withdrawal Agreement.
If you are covered by the Agreement:
close family members (spouses, civil partners, unmarried partners, dependent children and grandchildren, and dependent parents and grandparents) will be able to join those under the Withdrawal Agreement after the end of the implementation period on the basis of current EU rules, where the relationship existed before the end of the implementation period. All family members lawfully resident with an EU citizen at the end of the implementation period will also be protected.
your children, born or adopted, will be covered by the agreement if you are outside your EU country of residence after 31 December 2020
UK nationals in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway
The UK has reached agreement on separation issues, including citizens’ rights, with the European Economic Area (EEA) and European Free Trade Area (EFTA) states (Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein). The legal text of this agreement was published on 20 December 2018. This agreement will apply if the Withdrawal Agreement is agreed with the EU.
The UK has also reached an agreement with the EEA EFTA states to protect citizens’ rights in a no deal scenario.
These agreements give people more certainty about key rights including residence, healthcare, pensions and other benefits. Together they will protect the rights of UK nationals in the EEA EFTA states and EEA EFTA nationals in the UK in any scenario, ensuring that you can continue living your lives broadly as you do now.
View the EEA EFTA Separation Agreement that provides clarity for both UK and EEA EFTA citizens, businesses and organisations.
View the EEA EFTA No Deal Citizens’ Rights Agreement that provides clarity for both UK and EEA EFTA citizens in a no deal scenario.
UK nationals in Switzerland
The UK has reached a separate agreement on citizens’ rights with Switzerland. The legal text of this agreement was published on 20 December 2018. This protects the rights of UK nationals in Switzerland and Swiss citizens in the UK, ensuring that you can continue to live your lives broadly as you do now. This agreement broadly mirrors the citizens’ rights part of the EU Withdrawal Agreement.
View the UK-Swiss Citizens’ Rights Agreement that provides clarity for both UK and Swiss citizens.
UK nationals in Ireland
The rights enjoyed by UK and Irish nationals in the Common Travel Area will not be affected by the UK’s exit from the EU. For further information, visit the Common Travel Area guidance page.
What this could mean for you
Living in the EU after the UK leaves the EU
During the Implementation Period, free movement rights will continue to apply to you as a UK national. This means that you will be able to live in an EU country. If you are legally resident in the EU by the end of this period, you will be covered by the Withdrawal Agreement, and will be able to continue living in your EU country of residence, enjoying broadly the same rights to healthcare, benefits and pensions as at present.
Moving to another EU Member State after the UK leaves the EU
During the Implementation Period, as a UK national you will continue to be able to move to another EU country. If the EU country where you live requires you to apply for a residence status, you will have until at least June 2021 to make that application.
The rules that will apply for you if you’re not included in the Withdrawal Agreement, if you move to the UK or EU after 31 December 2020, will depend on the outcome of the negotiations. The Prime Minister has been clear that UK nationals will still want to work and study in EU countries – just as EU citizens will want to do the same here, helping to shape and drive growth, innovation and enterprise.
Businesses across the EU and the UK must be able to attract and employ the people they need and we are open to discussing how to facilitate these valuable links. We will set out initial proposals for our future immigration arrangements with the EU in due course.
Working in the EU after the UK leaves the EU
During the Implementation Period, as a UK nationals you will enjoy the same rights to work in an EU Member State as at present.
If you are legally resident in the EU by the end of this period you will be covered by the Withdrawal Agreement, and will be able to continue living and working in your EU country of residence broadly as at present.
After the end of the Implementation Period, future arrangements if you are not covered by the Withdrawal Agreement will be determined by the negotiations on the UK-EU future partnership.
Receiving an uprated UK state pension in the EU after the UK leaves the EU
During the Implementation Period, the current framework of EU rules and regulations will apply. This includes social security coordination rules and the right to an uprated state pension.
We have now confirmed who will be in scope of the Withdrawal Agreement for social security coordination purposes. As a UK nationals living in an EU country by the end of the implementation period, if you remain in the scope of the Agreement, you will:
maintain the right to export an uprated UK state pension
receive associated reciprocal healthcare cover in the EU
The UK State Pension is payable worldwide under domestic legislation.
Access to healthcare in the EU after the UK leaves the EU
During the Implementation Period the current framework of EU rules and regulations will apply.
As long as you remain in scope of the Withdrawal Agreement, your equal treatment rights to healthcare in your Member State of residence will be protected after the end of the implementation period (on the same basis as a comparable national of your EU country of residence).
Travelling to the UK
You and your family members (both EU citizens and in some cases non-EU citizens) will be able to travel to the UK as now until 31 December 2020. After that date, UK Immigration Rules will apply where a family member is not a UK national. We will be setting out initial proposals for our future immigration arrangements in due course. The UK’s departure from the EU does not change nationality law and therefore the processes for registering children and applying for British passports remain the same. As a UK national you can travel to the UK at any time, including after 31 December 2020.
The UK’s exit from the European Union will not change existing double taxation arrangements. Double taxation agreements ensure that anyone (not just a British citizen) who is living in a country that has a treaty with the UK will not pay tax in 2 countries on the same income/gain and determines which country has primary taxing rights. The UK has a double taxation agreement with all EU countries, which will continue to apply after we leave the EU.
Voting in UK elections whilst living overseas
As a UK national living overseas, you are entitled to register to vote in UK Parliamentary elections as overseas voters for up to 15 years after you were last registered to vote in the UK.
For voting in local election in EU countries, the UK is seeking bilateral arrangements with individual member states. These would preserve reciprocal voting rights for both UK nationals living in the EU and EU citizens in the UK.
Bringing your family to the UK
If you’re a UK national living in the EEA or Switzerland, bringing your close family members back to the UK depends on when the relationship started.
Relationships that begin before the UK leaves the EU
Your spouse or partner and other existing close family members (such as parents, grandparents and children) will be able to join you in the UK and apply to the EU Settlement Scheme until March 2022. After 29 March 2022, they will have to apply through UK Immigration Rules.
Relationships that begin after the UK leaves the EU
Your spouse or partner and other dependent relatives (such as parents, grandparents and children) will be able to join you in the UK and apply to the EU Settlement Scheme until 31 December 2020. From 2021 they will have to apply through UK Immigration Rules.
Your children will continue to have the right to British citizenship, wherever they were born. This will apply whether the UK leaves the EU with a deal or no deal.
Access to higher education, 19+ further education and apprenticeship funding in the UK
If you are a UK national who previously lived in England and now live in the EEA or Switzerland and wish to study in England, you will continue to be eligible for home fee status and student support from Student Finance England for a 7-year transition period.
You will also have access to further education 19+ courses and apprenticeships in England for that period. If the UK leaves the EU without a deal, the 7-year transition period will start on exit day. If the UK leaves the EU with a deal, the 7-year transition period will start at the end of the Implementation Period.
During the transition period you will still be able to access student support, or apply for apprenticeships in England, immediately on your return to the UK.
Preparations in the event of a no deal scenario
More information on exiting the EU
- Living in country guides
- Foreign travel advice for all countries
- Article 50 and negotiations with the EU
- Exiting the European Union
- Applying for dual citizenship
- Find a British embassy, high commission or consulate abroad
- Information for EU citizens on settled status in the UK
- Follow FCO travel advice on Twitter and Facebook