Conventional methods of charcoal production lose about half the energy in the conversion process. This publication details a carbonization unit which enables both efficient recovery of waste heat and realistic performance predictions to be made for its use in associated processes.
Breag, G.R.; Coulter, J.P.; Hollingdale, A.C.; Krishnan, R.; Robinson, A.P. Wood carbonization unit: design and development of a prototype with recovery of waste heat. (1992) 20 pp. ISBN 9780859543064