This literature review was undertaken with a view to understanding three basic issues: (a) how information and communication technology (ICT) could buttress basic education in different regional contexts; (b) how ICT facilitates the integration of marginalized schools and communities; and (c) what research areas and priorities need to be focused on to facilitate the integration of ICT in basic education in low income countries. Attempts have been made to consult a wide array of literature and policy documents that could be accessed in Rwanda. To provide a comprehensive panoramic view of the use of ICT in basic education, a comparative approach has been adopted for review and presentation of the findings. In this respect, efforts have been made to draw on initiatives at the global, Pan-African and national levels. To provide concrete experiences, some country initiatives in Asia and Africa have been highlighted with a view to creating a context for the Rwandan in-country initiatives.