This study explores informal payments in Bulgaria within a conceptual framework developed by triangulating information using a variety of methodologies. It's objective was to estimate the scale and determinants of informal payments in the health sector of Bulgaria and to identify who benefits, the characteristics and timing of payments, and the reasons for paying. Data were derived from a national representative survey of 1,547 individuals complemented by in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 100 respondents, conducted in Bulgaria in 1997.
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Paying for 'free' health care: informal payments in Bulgaria
Health Policy, 62 (3), 243-273 pp.
Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria.