The contribution of tomato and alternative host plants to tomato leaf curl virus inoculum pressure in different areas of south India
Indian tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) (Geminiviridae: Sub-group III) was detected both in field-collected and laboratory-reared B. tabaci using a triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). ToLCV was detected in six of the 10 group samples of field collected B. tabaci. ToLCV was also identified in 13 weed species commonly found in Karnataka, both by symptom expression and TAS-ELISA. ToLCV from c. 61% of infected plants was transmitted successfully to tomato by B. tabaci.
Tomato plots were planted at three locations on the University of Agricultural Sciences Campus, Bangalore. Indian tomato leaf curl virus disease (ToLCVD) incidence increased most rapidly when the tomato plot was situated adjacent to an older ToLCVD-infected tomato field. When the plots were positioned in a dryland or a wetland area, at least 500 m away from any infected tomato fields, the ToLCVD incidence increased less rapidly, although in all sites it was 100% by 11 wk after transplanting. The numbers of B. tabaci caught on yellow traps in all sites increased during weeks 1–3 after transplanting and thereafter remained at between 10–15 adults trap-1 24 h_1. Adult numbers recorded on tomato plants by direct counts remained approximately constant at 2–4 adults/plant.
Tomato fields were planted in three taluks (administrative areas) of Karnataka, that had different current and previous histories of tomato production. ToLCVD incidence increased most and least rapidly, respectively, in Kolar taluk where tomato is grown continuously and Doddaballapur tuluk where tomato was grown in the area for the first time. In Malur tuluk, where tomato was grown discontinuously (once a year), the incidence of ToLCVD increased at an intermediate rate.
Weed host-plant species growing near the experimental sites had averages of between 1.5–10.0 B. tabaci nymphs per plant, whereas the tomato plants had only 0.3 nymphs per plant. The percentage parasitism of B. tabaci nymphs on tomato and weed species, respectively, was 0.7% and 2–6%. Nymphs and pupae were parasitised by an Encarsia sp. and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet.
The relevance and implications of these findings for the epidemiology and management of ToLCVD in Karnataka State, South India is discussed.
Ramappa, H.K.; Muniyappa, V.; Colvin, J. The contribution of tomato and alternative host plants to tomato leaf curl virus inoculum pressure in different areas of South India. Annals of Applied Biology (1998) 133 (2) 187-198. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1998.tb05819.x]