In a trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe, 1207 HIV-infected children, not previously treated with antiretroviral therapy, were given abacavir, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz (as well as cotrimoxazole as prophylaxis against other infections); in one arm of the trial, they were also given zidovudine. Hypersensitivy reactions were reported in 52 children, and in 7 of them, treatment was stopped. The symptoms resolved in the 6 surviving cases (one child with isosporiasis died), the treatment was restarted without abacavir, and there were no recurrences of symptoms. Independent review found that only 3 of the 7 cases (0.2% of trial participants) were actually possible or probable reactions to abacavir; the clinical features of these cases are described.
Nahirya-Ntege, P.; Naidoo, B.; Nathoo, K.J.; Mugyenyi, P.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Katuramu, R.; Spyer, M.; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, M.F.; Musiime, V.; Kasirye, P.; Vhembo, T.; Mubokyi, S.; Bakeera-Kitaka, S.; Crawley, J.; Munderi, P. Succesful management of suspected Abacavir hypersensitivity reactions among African children in the ARROW (AntiRetroviral Research fOr Watoto) trial. Presented at The 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, 19-22 July 2009 and 1st International Workshop on HIV Pediatrics, 17-18 July 2009, Cape Town, South Africa. (2009)