This discussion paper on the social costs and benefits of roads and road transport focuses round two questions:
Under what socio-cultural and spatial conditions are the social benefits (and/or costs) of road transport particularly significant?
How do the social benefits and costs of road transport vary over time?
These two questions are considered with specific reference to Nigeria and Ghana although studies elsewhere are referred to. The aim is to illustrate the intertwining of social, economic and political issues, the diversity of interest groups and institutional contexts, the diversity of perceptions and value judgments, and the potential for change over time, all of which add to the complexities surrounding assessment of the social benefits and costs of roads and road transport.
Porter, G. Spatio-temporal perspectives on the social benefits and costs of roads and road transport: a discussion paper with special reference to women and children. (2003)