The paper examines the main policy levers in Indonesia with a view to locating the major actors and the nature of their interaction in the policy process. The paper proposes six key political themes influencing Indonesia's transition from an authoritarian to a democratic regime. These six themes set the political framework which determines not only who the key policy makers are but also the levels at which they wield influence on policy. The themes are: the security dangers posed by the weak democratic system; the ongoing impact of decentralisation on regional politics; the continued role of the military in civilian affairs; the impact of stalled legal reform and widespread corruption in the public sector; the influence of both moderate and fundamentalist Islamic movements; and, the serious problem posed by high levels of separatist and communal violence. The paper explores these themes through analysing three types of policy maker. The main section of the paper considers the formal state structure and state policy processes at the national and sub-national levels. This section includes a discussion on the main political parties. The paper then discusses the non-governmental sector, in particular the role of civil society groups, religious movements, trade unions and the media. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the major international bilateral and multilateral donors on policy making.
CRISE Policy Context Paper 5, Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, Oxford, UK, 21 pp.
Policy Levers in Indonesia.