Natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera in Africa: a review
The natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera in Africa are reviewed, using published, unpublished and museum sources. A large variety of natural enemies are represented in almost 300 host records, including 83 parasitoids identified to species and 93 identified only to genus. The taxonomy, distribution, biology, alternative hosts or prey, host-plant associations and secondary natural enemies are detailed for all recorded natural enemies, and the different aspects are summarized and evaluated for the total natural enemy complex. Striking differences are found in the reported parasitoid complexes between East Africa and southern Africa. Methods for sampling natural enemies of H. armigera are discussed and suggestions are made for accurately estimating parasitism rates for the different types of parasitoids attacking H. armigera.
Van den Berg, H.; Waage, J.K.; Cock, M.J.W. Natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera in Africa: a review. CAB International, Wallingford, UK (1988) 82 pp.