No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development of a vaccine for humans has been high. However, leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor and the market for a vaccine is very limited. Until a few years ago, with minimal resources, only a pragmatic approach was possible for testing the first-generation vaccines (i.e. killed whole parasites). Recently, funding has become available for developing defined second-generation vaccines, including recombinant proteins and DNA constructs. With new adjuvants also being developed there is new hope, and several new vaccines are in development against leishmaniasis.
Moddaber, F. Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2010) 36: S58-S61. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.06.024]