Insecticide resistance to representatives of commonly used insecticide groups (pyrethroids—cypermethrin; organophosphates—chlorpyriphos; cyclodienes—endosulfan) was determined in five major insect pests of cotton from the main cotton growing regions of India with emphasis on Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) exhibited widespread resistance to cypermethrin with 23–8022-fold resistance being recorded in field strains. Resistance to endosulfan and chlorpyriphos was low to moderate in H. armigera. The overall resistance of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) to pyrethroids was low. However, high resistance levels of 23–57-fold to endosulfan were recorded in some areas of Central India. Resistance to chlorpyriphos was high in the Medak, Bhatinda and Sirsa strains from North India. The majority of the Spodoptera litura (Fab.) strains collected in South India exhibited high resistance levels of 61–148-fold to cypermethrin. Resistance to endosulfan was high only in two strains, collected from Bhatinda and Karimnagar in North India. The S. litura strains from South India exhibited high levels of resistance at 45–129-fold to chlorpyriphos. Insecticide resistance in Earias vittella (Fab.) was low to moderate in the Sirsa and Sriganganagar strains from North India. Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) exhibited moderately high levels of resistance to cypermethrin, but resistance to endosulfan and chlorpyriphos was negligible in the field strains tested. The implications of resistance for cotton pest management in India are discussed.
Kranthi, K.R.; Jadhav, D.R.; Kranthi, S.; Wanjari, R.R.; Ali, S.S.; Russell, D.A. Insecticide resistance in five major insect pests of cotton in India. Crop Protection (2002) 21 (6) 449-460. [DOI: 10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00131-4]