Identity is as much about how people describe themselves and others as it is inherently about difference – defining a group with regards to dissimilarities in cultural, gendered, sexual, ethnic or national markers among others. Questions relating to identity may also be buried in other terms and framing depending on context – the predominance of caste or clan in South Asia is one example. The general analytical understanding is that identities are historically and socially fluid and constructed even if, in practice, groups portray themselves as natural or primordial.
Kaur Kahlon, R. (2016). Identity. GSDRC Professional Development Reading Pack no. 44. Birmingham, UK: University of Birmingham, 4pp