We use data on children at ages 8, 12, and 15 from Young Lives, a cohort study of 12,000 children across Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru, and Vietnam to document the presence of a gender gap across indicators of nutrition, education, aspirations, subjective well-being, and psychosocial competencies. We find considerable heterogeneity across countries, ages, and indicators in the existence and direction of gender gaps. Second, we find evidence of an “institutionalized” gender bias against girls in education in India and, to an extent, Ethiopia. Poorer non-cognitive skills could be a channel for continuing gender bias through poorer labor market outcomes.
Dercon, S.; Singh, A. From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy: Gender Bias over Time among Children in Four Countries. World Development (2013) 45: 31-50. [DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.12.001]